Although it was known that there were large numbers of mixed marriages among the third and fourth generations of the Spanish and Portuguese Jewish immigrants of the s and s and the German Jewish immigrants to America in the mid- to late nineteenth century, within the American Jewish community intermarriage was by and large not the subject of research or analysis until the s. Until then, it was the consensus of social scientists that with the large influx of Eastern European Jewish immigrants between and mixed marriage had become a null category. The leadership and the masses of American Jews were preoccupied with breaking down any barriers to complete assimilation. Fighting discrimination and prejudice was the order of the day. Even in s America, however, mate selection is not solely a matter of romantic love. The first voice noting a growing rate of mixed marriage was heard in an article written by Eric Rosenthal for the American Jewish Yearbook. Rosenthal analyzed the mixed-marriage rates of Jews in Iowa and later in of those in Indiana, the only two states that recorded the religion of future bride and groom when they registered for a marriage license. He found that the out-marriage rate of Jews was over twenty percent in these states.