ROME An Italian expert in Hebrew manuscripts said Wednesday he had discovered the oldest known complete Torah scroll, a sheepskin document dating from It was right under his nose, in the University of Bologna library, where it had been mistakenly catalogued a century ago as dating from the 17th century. The find isn’t the oldest Torah text in the world: the Leningrad and the Aleppo bibles – both of them Hebrew codexes, or books – pre-date the Bologna scroll by more than years. But this is the oldest Torah scroll of the Pentateuch, the five books of Moses, according to Mauro Perani, a professor of Hebrew in the University of Bologna’s cultural heritage department. Such scrolls – this one is 40 yards long and 64 centimeters 25 inches high – are brought out in synagogues on the Sabbath and holidays, and portions are read aloud in public. In a telephone interview Wednesday, Perani said he was updating the library’s Hebrew manuscript catalogue when he stumbled upon the scroll in February. He said he immediately recognized the scroll had been wrongly dated by the last cataloguer in , because he recognized that its script and other graphic notations were far older. Specifically, he said the scroll doesn’t take into account the rabbinical rules that standardized how the Pentateuch should be copied that were established by Maimonides in the late 12th century. The scroll contains many features and markings that would be forbidden under those rules, he said.
Torah observant dating
It can most specifically mean the first five books Pentateuch or five books of Moses of the Hebrew Bible. This is commonly known as the Written Torah. It can also mean the continued narrative from all the 24 books, from the Book of Genesis to the end of the Tanakh Chronicles. If in bound book form , it is called Chumash , and is usually printed with the rabbinic commentaries perushim.
A Torah scroll dating from the 15th century. The scroll is incomplete, lacking sections from the Book of Genesis, and thus would not be suitable.
The purpose of the rabbi at a wedding is to ensure that the extremely detailed wedding halachot, as set out by the Shulchan Aruch, are followed correctly. If not, the wedding might not be kosher. A Jewish marriage includes: a written document ketuba ; a financial transaction ring in front of two kosher witnesses; and physical intimacy. The bride and groom should confirm verbally that these are the two and the only two witnesses that they want. The groom must say Harei at mekudeshet li You must tell whatever you know that is relevant about a potential date that someone is considering marrying.
A cohen may not date divorcees, converts, or a woman both of whose parents converted before she was born. If there may be any question about the Jewish lineage of a bride-to-be or bridegroom, his or her female antecedents should be confirmed as having been Jewish born of a Jewess OR halachically converted back to when a shomeret Shabbat woman has been positively identified or back as far as possible.
SawYouAtHoreb: Dating and Matchmaking
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9 Oldest Copies of the Torah in the World
T he dating of the Bible is a controversial topic. Traditionalists say the Torah was written by Moses; the Psalms, mostly by David; Proverbs by Solomon; the prophets—by whichever name is carried in the title. Sixth century B. Revisionists say the Torah was written after the Babylonian captivity—along with everything else, really.
Second century B.
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But dating and relationships can actually provide us with powerful opportunities for spiritual practice. For example: S. So old and deep is the mystery and challenge of finding a partner that the rabbis of the Talmud wrote that it was as difficult for God to split the Red Sea as to find soulmates for people. To date is to enter a pilgrimage to the unknown—we leave our comfortable, established relationships and head into unfamiliar territory. Of course, dating involves other people.
Lack of control is terrifying, but it is one of the great spiritual teachers. As long as we are alive, no matter how hard we try to control the specifics of our lives, change will happen—in our bodies, our families, our jobs, our world—and it will often surprise us. A good deal of Jewish spiritual practice has to do with acknowledging this lack of control while creating structures to help us navigate it as individuals and as a community.
In ancient Israel, vulnerability was a constant fact of life, since rainwater for crops was scarce and unpredictable. Jews dealt with this by reciting daily prayers requesting rain; if a drought continued, an entire system of communal prayers, fasting, and self-examination went into effect. Perhaps in this sense dating is, for us, what rain was to the ancient Israelites. Relationships bring us face to face with uncertainty, even in a time when many of us have managed to insulate our daily lives from fundamental survival anxiety.
So, if dating is the modern equivalent of rain in its challenging unpredictability, what is the modern equivalent of fasting—what are specific ways we can use dating to practice spiritual skills? Here are a few spiritual muscles that can be strengthened during the dating process.
Expert discovers ancient Torah scroll in plain sight
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This manuscript of the Hebrew Bible dates to the year C.E., so it is a medieval text, but it is the oldest complete textual witness to the Pentateuch. This seems.
By Nick Squires , Rome. The priceless scroll was found in the archives of Bologna University, which was founded in and predates both Oxford and Cambridge. The scroll, written in Hebrew, is ft long and 25 inches wide and consists of the first five books of the Jewish Bible, from Bereshit the equivalent of Genesis to Devarim Deuteronomy. It had been wrongly dated to the 17th century by a librarian who studied it in , but it now transpires that it is more than years old.
He recently re-examined the scroll and noticed that the script was from a Babylonian tradition that suggested it was much older than previously thought. Rejection of religious discrimination claims raise fears of ‘exclusion of Christians’. Lords revolt threatens gay marriage Bill. Former Archbishop of Canterbury Lord Carey in row over ‘intolerant’ event.
The Torah, inscribed on soft lamb skin, also bore “letters and symbols” that were forbidden in later copies under rules laid down by Jewish scholars, Prof Perani said. They all agreed that it dated to the 12th or 13th centuries. One scholar believed it could even date back to the 11th century. Torah scrolls are extremely rare because most were eventually destroyed after being used in Jewish liturgies.
They could no longer be used for religious ceremonies and they were buried,” Prof Perani said.
Aug 27 7 Elul Torah Portion. What can I do with this situation? How can I make it constructive and use it to elevate myself somehow? The road from being single to standing under the chuppah follows similar stages depicted in the Exodus narrative. Rosie Einhorn and Sherry Zimmerman talk about chemistry, timing and having a mentor. Is there any hope for this relationship?
Not only that, but the Sages in the Talmud [Source II], who often have traditions about the dates of other Biblical events, disagree about the date of the giving of the.
In May , we acquired a Holocaust Torah. We have become shomrim guardians of this Torah and we are honored to have it in our congregation. Up to the midth century only one Jewish family was allowed to reside in Caslav. When the Jews were granted civic equality under law in the midth century, Jews from the neighboring villages started to move to Caslav. The congregation numbered in and ceased to exist after WWII.
Jews settled there most probably in the Middle Ages. A Jewish community and a synagogue are recorded only in the midth century earlier records were destroyed during a fire. It was an important Jewish center in the 18thth century over Jews with a tradition of Talmudic studies. Sir Moses Montefiore visited the yeshivah in The Jewish population numbered only 79 in The community also had a rabbi until After WWII, the congregation ceased to exist and was not revived.
Most of the Jewish Quarter has survived up to the present. Remains of a mikvah are preserved in the basement of the former school.
The Antiquity of the Scriptures: The Torah
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the book of Job, linked this view with that which assigns a late date to the authorship of the Torah, contradicting the traditional belief that “Moses wrote his book.
Who wrote the Torah? The tradition claims it was Moses, but the Torah itself says otherwise. Despite all disagreement in current scholarship, however, the situation in Pentateuchal research is far from desperate, and there are indeed some basic statements that can be made regarding the formation of the Torah. This is what this contribution is about. The Textual Evidence of the Pentateuch.
What is the textual basis for the Pentateuch? At this point, one should mention the so-called Codex Leningradensis or B 19A in the first place. This seems to leave us in a very awkward position: We are dealing with an allegedly year-old text, but its earliest textual attestation is only years old. Yet the situation is not hopeless. Firstly, there are ancient translations that significantly predate the Codex B 19 A.
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All rights reserved. An Italian expert in Hebrew manuscripts says he has found the oldest known complete Torah scroll, a sheepskin document dating from In , an Italian librarian’s faulty identification sentenced to archival obscurity an antique Torah scroll that has turned out to be the oldest complete such scroll in existence. This week, University of Bologna Professor Mauro Perani announced the results of carbon tests authenticating the scroll’s age as roughly years old.
Like all Torah scrolls, this one contains the full text of the five Books of Moses in Hebrew and is prepared according to strict standards for use during religious services. What a 19th-century cataloguer had interpreted as clumsy mistakes by what he guessed was an awkward 17th-century scribe provided the very clues that led Perani to investigate further. National Geographic spoke by telephone to Perani about his rediscovery. The original librarian and cataloguer from , Leonello Modona, was an educated man but not a scholar.
B’OR HA’TORAH Volume 13 (2002)
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Torah Scroll Sheet dated ca. C.E., containing Exodus Courtesy of the Hebraic Section of the African and Middle East Division.
VOL VI VOL V VOL IV VOL II VOL I A recent announcement by the Library of Congress regarding the purchase of a single Torah scroll sheet dating from approximately C. The Library of Congress scroll sheet contains five columns of text, comprising Exodus , a portion extending from the Plague of Locusts to the appearance of Manna in the desert.
According to an inscription in both Hebrew and Russian on the back of the scroll, the sheet was presented by Shelomo Beim C. One may assume that the scroll sheet emanates from the Near East, based on considerations of text, handwriting, section divisions, and layout of the Song of the Sea. Fortunately, before the sale, Jordan Penkower of Bar-Ilan University was able to study the document closely and described it in a very detailed article in the journal Textus.